Collective Action Conference 2018

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Day 1: 14th November

Welcome address

Mark Pieth

Chairman of the Board
Basel Institute on Governance

Mark Pieth

Mark Pieth has been since 1993 Professor of Criminal Law and Criminology at the University of Basel, Switzerland. Having completed his undergraduate degree and his PhD in criminal law and criminal procedure at this university, he spent an extensive period of time abroad, most notably at the Max Planck Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology in Germany and the Cambridge Institute of Criminology in the United Kingdom. After practicing for a time as a private barrister (‘Advokat’), he returned to his alma mater to complete his post-doctoral (‘habilitation’) thesis on sanctioning and other aspects of criminology.

From 1989 to 1993, Prof. Pieth was Head of Section – Economic and Organised Crime at the Swiss Federal Office of Justice (Ministry of Justice and Police). In this role, he drafted legislation against money laundering, organised crime, drug abuse, corruption and the confiscation of assets. As a government official and later as an independent consultant, he also acquired extensive experience in international fora, amongst other things, serving as Member of the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF), Member of the Chemical Action Task Force on Precursor Chemicals and Chair of an intergovernmental expert group charged by the United Nations with determining the extent of the illicit traffic in drugs.

From 1990 to the end of 2013, Prof. Pieth has chaired the OECD Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions, also participating in the Wolfsberg AML Banking Initiative as a facilitator. In spring 2004 he was appointed by the UN Secretary General to the Independent Inquiry Committee into the Iraq Oil-for-Food Programme. In autumn 2008, Prof. Pieth was made a member of the Integrity Advisory Board of The World Bank Group (IAB), advising the President of the Bank and the Audit Committee on integrity issues. More recently, in spring 2013, he was appointed as the Chairman of the Sanctions Appeals Board of the African Development Bank (AfDB). He is the founder and Chairman of the Board of the Basel Institute on Governance (BIG). Prof. Pieth has served as an expert witness in several landmark arbitration cases, namely IPOC (ad hoc tribunal) Fraport/Philippines (ICSID) and Piatco/Philippines (ICC).

Within Switzerland, Prof. Pieth has assumed various presidencies and memberships of national commissions, including the Expert Group of the National Research Programme on Violence and Organised Crime, the Federal Commission on Data Protection in the Medical Profession, the Swiss Federal Gaming Commission and the Consultative Commission to the Federal Administration of Finances on the Prevention of Money Laundering. He continues to consult corporations, international organisations and foreign governments on issues related to governance and to publish extensively in the field of economic and organised crime, money laundering, corruption, sanctioning and criminal procedure. He has formerly served as Dean of the Faculty of Law at the University of Basel.

Panel 1: Private sector and Law Enforcement: Constructive Engagement to Counter Corruption – “Take 2”


Jennifer H. Arlen

Norma Z. Paige Professor of Law at New York University (NYU)
Director, Program on Corporate Compliance and Enforcement
Director, Center in Law, Economics and Organization


Jennifer Arlen is the Norma Z. Paige Professor of Law at New York University School of Law and is the founder and a Faculty Director of the Program on Corporate Compliance and Enforcement. She also is the Director of the Center for Law, Economics and Organization.

Professor Arlen's scholarship focuses on corporate liability, experimental economics, and medical malpractice. She has published in leading scholarly publications, including the RAND Journal of Economics; Journal of Law and Economics; Journal of Law, Economics and Organization; Journal of Legal Studies; Journal of Legal Analysis; Chicago Law Review; New York University Law Review; University of Pennsylvania Law Review and the Yale Law Journal. She is currently editing the Research Handbook on Corporate Crime and Financial Misdealing.

Professor Arlen also is the Associate Reporter on Enforcement for the American Law Institute's project, Principles of Law, Compliance, Risk Management for Corporations, Nonprofits, and Other Organizations.

Professor Arlen teaches Business Crime, Corporations, and Regulation of Foreign Corrupt Practices. She also has taught a seminar on Corporate Crime and Financial Misdealing: Legal and Policy Analysis, the Colloquium on the Economic Analysis of Law, Securities Fraud Litigation, and Torts.


Andreas Hoffmann

General Counsel and Head of Legal and Compliance
Siemens AG

Dr. Andreas C. Hoffmann is General Counsel of Siemens AG since January 1, 2014. He started his career at Siemens AG in 2008 as General Counsel Industry Sector.

Prior to joining Siemens, Dr. Hoffmann was for three years General Counsel Germany and Lead Lawyer Commercial Finance Europe of GE. Before, he was partner of various international law firms focusing on Private Equity and M & A.

Dr. Hoffmann received his doctoral degree in law at the University of Frankfurt and his Master of International Law at the University of Miami.

Ephraim Wernick

Assistant Chief, Fraud Section
U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division


Ephraim (Fry) Wernick is Assistant Chief of the Fraud Section’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) Unit within the U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, where he supervises investigations of multinational corporations and individuals for violations of the FCPA, money laundering and related criminal statutes. Fry has investigated hundreds of criminal cases, including several high-profile matters involving financial crimes and public corruption, and he has successfully first-chaired over 30 criminal cases at trial, including complex financial crimes, national security matters, and violent crimes. Fry also serves as a DOJ delegate to multiple international fora, including the U.N. Convention Against Corruption and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), he routinely speaks at business seminars and conferences, and he frequently trains domestic and foreign prosecutors and investigators on the FCPA. In 2017, Fry was detailed by DOJ to serve as counsel to the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, where he advised on national security and criminal law matters. Before becoming a prosecutor, Fry worked for two international law firms and also worked as an investigative counsel on the U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Fry is a graduate of Brown University and the University of Texas School of Law.

Emmanuel Farhat

Senior International Affairs Officer
French Anti-corruption Agency

Mr Emmanuel Farhat is a French magistrate with post-graduate training at the National School for the Judiciary in France. Before joining the French Anticorruption Agency, in September 2017, he worked in the Terrorism Prevention Branch of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in Austria. Prior to that, he held various positions at the national level as a prosecutor, at the Counter Terrorism Bureau of the French Ministry of Justice, as well as in the Courts in Evry and in Paris (division for investigations on financial crimes).

In his current position, he works as Senior International Affairs Officer at the French Anticorruption Agency. He is the coordinator for all international related policies and partnerships at the bilateral and multilateral levels, representing the AFA in several anticorruption fora, including OECD, GRECO, United Nations, G7 and G20.

Tina Søreide

Professor of Law and Economics
Norwegian School of Economics

Tina Søreide is Professor of Law and Economics. Her research is focused on corruption, governance, markets and development, currently with an emphasis on law enforcement. She was previously employed by the Faculty of Law, University of Bergen (UiB), the Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI) and the World Bank, Washington DC. She gives master level courses on governance dysfunctions and corruption at the NHH and at the International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA) in Vienna. Her research is published internationally in books, academic journals and policy reports, her most recent book being Corruption and Criminal Justice: Bridging Legal and Economic Perspectives (Edw. Elgar, 2016), and she has also acted as the editor of two volumes on corruption. Søreide has been engaged in policy work for the Norwegian Government and internationally, including for the OECD, the EU, the World Bank, development agencies and governments - several times as the project leader. She is a member of the High Level Advisory Group on Anticorruption and Integrity (HLAG) to the Secretary General of the OECD.

Kevin Abikoff

Hughes Hubbard & Reed LLP, Washington


Kevin Abikoff is a Partner in the Washington, D.C. office of Hughes Hubbard & Reed LLP where he is Chairman of the firm's Anti-Corruption and Internal Investigations Practice Group and co-chairman of its Securities Litigation Practice Group. Mr. Abikoff focuses his practice on Securities and White-Collar Criminal Litigation, Enforcement, Regulation and Counseling with an emphasis on the representation of corporations, individuals, and other entities in anti-corruption (including FCPA) matters (investigations, due diligence, and counseling), securities and insurance litigation, regulatory, enforcement and arbitration proceedings, particularly class action litigation, securities disclosure counseling, and designing and implementing insurance and securities compliance policies, procedures, and programs.

He previously served as a Senior Vice President and General Counsel, Corporate and Compliance, American General Corporation. Mr. Abikoff served as a law clerk to the Honorable Collins J. Seitz of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. He earned his B.A., summa cum laude, from Boston University and his J.D. from Columbia Law School. He is a co-author of the Bloomberg BNA treatise Anti-Corruption Law and Compliance: Guide to the FCPA and Beyond.

Panel 2: Quo Vadis Collective Action


Gemma Aiolfi

Head of Compliance and Corporate Covernance/Collective Action
Basel Institute on Governance


Gemma Aiolfi has been the Head of Compliance, Corporate Governance and Collective Action at the Basel Institute on Governance since July 2013.

Prior to that she was Legal Counsel to the Integrity Department and the internal Office of Special Investigations at ABB AG in Oerlikon Zurich, focusing on advising on internal corruption allegations in connection with the US Deferred Prosecution Agreement. Ms. Aiolfi was Global Head of Anti-Corruption at UBS AG in Zurich, and also worked in the Group Money Laundering Prevention Unit. Whilst employed by the OECD’s Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions she was seconded to work at the University of Basel, where she helped to establish the Basel Institute on Governance and worked with the Chairman of the OECD Working Group, Prof. Mark Pieth.

Gemma has also served as an advisor to the UN Independent Inquiry Commission on the Iraq Oil for Food Program. Having studied Law at the London School of Economics she was called to the bar of England and Wales and practised in London before relocating to Switzerland. Postgraduate law studies were undertaken at Basel and Stockholm Universities.

Gemma represents the Ethics and Compliance Switzerland (ECS) NGO Stakeholder Group and co-chairs the ECS Working Group on Small and Medium Sized Organisations (SMO).


Lisa K. Miller

World Bank Group Integrity Compliance Officer, Head of the Integrity Compliance Unit in the World Bank Group's Integrity Vice Presidency
World Bank Group


Lisa Miller is the World Bank Group Integrity Compliance Officer and heads the Integrity Compliance Unit in the World Bank Group's Integrity Vice Presidency. She previously was a Senior Counsel in the World Bank's Legal Vice Presidency focusing on sanctions and legal procurement matters. Prior to joining the World Bank, she was in private legal practice in Boston and Washington, D.C. Her practice focused on integrity compliance, sanctions, public procurement, and corporate matters.

Lisa Miller received an LL.M. in International and Comparative Law, with distinction, from Georgetown University Law Center. She received her J.D. from George Washington University Law School where she was a member of The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics, and a Dean’s Fellow. She graduated from Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service with a B.S. in International Politics and Certificate in German Studies.

Giorgio Melega

Chief Legal Officer, Tenova (Techint Group)


Giorgio Melega is Chief Legal Officer at Tenova (Techint Group), a multinational engineering company headquartered in Milan, with 30+ offices around the globe, which supplies products and services for the mining and metals industries. Before joining Tenova, Giorgio held in-house legal roles at General Electric, both in Milan and in Atlanta (USA) and, since 2006, acted as EMEA Legal Counsel for GE’s Energy Services business. Prior to that, Giorgio served as an attorney for Allen & Overy and for another Italian Milan-based firm, focusing mainly on Corporate/M&A work. He is a Cum Laude law graduate from the University of Bologna and is admitted to the Italian Bar. He also holds a Corporation Law LL.M. from New York University.

Hugh Bigwood

Chief Compliance Officer
Rio Tinto


Hentie Dirker

Chief Integrity Officer 


Dr. Hentie Dirker as the Chief Integrity Officer is responsible for the firm’s overall compliance posture and infrastructure with the goal of creating a program recognized as benchmark within the sectors where the company operates. Integrity refers principally to ethics and compliance for which the CIO will have functional line responsibility but also includes oversight, design validation and monitoring of the posture of the functions responsible for other aspects of the firm’s need to comply including export controls and trade sanctions.

Dr. Dirker joins SNC-Lavalin from Siemens where he was previously the Regional Compliance Officer for Canada. He began his career with Siemens in 1993 and held various management positions. Prior to joining Siemens Canada in June 2009, Hentie was the Deputy Regional Compliance Officer for Siemens South Africa and was responsible for the implementation of the compliance program for that region.

Dr. Dirker is the immediate past chair of the board of directors for the EthicsCentre of Canada, an organization dedicated to promoting and maintaining an ethical orientation and culture in Canadian organizations.

He holds an Electrical and Electronic Degree in Engineering as well as a Masters Degree in Engineering Management with a thesis on cost controlling within a project environment. He has also successfully completed his Doctoral studies in Engineering Management with a focus on industrial distribution channel sales and marketing.

Robin Hodess

Director, Governance Transparency, BTeam


Robin has been working in the fields of governance, transparency and social justice for two decades, including engagement with the private sector in a range of multi-stakeholder initiatives.
Previously, Robin was acting Managing Director and Strategy Director at Transparency International, having led Transparency International’s global policy, research and advocacy efforts for many years. She worked earlier in her career at the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs in New York and has taught at universities in the UK and Germany. Since September 2016, Robin has been a civil society member of the Open Government Partnership Steering Committee. She is currently OGP's incoming civil society co-chair, alongside the government of Argentina.Robin holds a PhD and MPhil in International Relations from Cambridge University and a BA in History from the University of Pennsylvania.

Erik Fyrwald, CEO Syngenta interviewed by Gretta Fenner, Managing Director, Basel Institute


Gretta Fenner

Managing Director
Basel Institute on Governance


Gretta Fenner is the Managing Director of the Basel Institute on Governance, where she also holds the position of Director of the Institute’s International Centre for Asset Recovery. She has already held these positions from 2005 to 2008, during the founding years of the Institute, and has joined the Institute again in late 2011 after three years in Australia and Oxford, UK.

During these intermittent years, she primarily worked as a freelance consultant advising governments, donors, international organisations and multinational corporations from around the world in governance and anti-corruption related topics as well as organisational change and development processes and policy design. Prior to joining the Basel Institute, from 2000 to 2005, Gretta worked at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris as the organisation’s manager for anti-corruption programmes in the Asia-Pacific region where she played a key role in establishing the ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia-Pacific.

Gretta Fenner is a political scientist by training and holds bachelor and master degrees from the Otto-Suhr-Institute at the Free University Berlin, Germany, and the Paris Institute for Political Science ("Sciences Po Paris"), France. In 2010, she further completed an MBA at the Curtin University Graduate School of Business, Australia.


Erik Fyrwald

Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Syngenta


Mr. J. Erik Fyrwald has been the Chief Executive Officer and President at Syngenta International AG since 2016. Mr. Fyrwald has a strong record of operational and strategic leadership in complex worldwide businesses with a focus on technology and innovation. He is an engineer by training and has significant CEO experience with Syngenta, Univar, and Nalco. Apart from his functions in Syngenta, J. Erik Fyrwald serves on the Board of Directors for Eli Lilly and Company (including their Science and Technology Committee), CropLife International and the Swiss-American Chamber of Commerce.

He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Delaware and completed the Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School.

Panel 3: From Island of Integrity to Integrity Pacts - and back again?


Claudia Baez Camargo

Head of Governance Research
Basel Institute on Governance


Claudia holds a PhD in political science from the University of Notre Dame, USA and a graduate degree in economics from the University of Cambridge, England. Originally from Mexico, she initiated her professional career working with the Ministry for Social Development, Federal Government of Mexico. There, Claudia was involved in developing demand-driven poverty reduction programmes aimed at ensuring access to basic public services for low-income rural communities.

She is currently Head of Governance Research at the Basel Institute on Governance where she is responsible for the development, oversight and management of the Institute’s research activities in the areas of public and global governance. Claudia also works with a broad range of interested stakeholders on consultancy projects aimed at developing context sensitive strategies to prevent corruption in the public sector.

Before joining the Institute in 2009, Claudia was Assistant Professor of political science at William Paterson University, New Jersey, where she taught courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels in comparative politics, Latin American history and research methods. To date, she continues to teach courses on corruption and development, health systems governance and has developed a special curriculum on research methods focusing on corruption studies.


Robert Klitgaard

University Professor
Claremont Graduate University


Robert Klitgaard is a University Professor at Claremont Graduate University, where he served as President from 2005 to 2009. Klitgaard advises countries around the world on government reform and economic strategy, and his consulting work and research have taken him to more than 35 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America. He has been called “the world’s leading expert on corruption” (The Christian Science Monitor).

He has participated in the World Economic Forum, as a faculty member and as a member of the Global Agenda Council. From 1997 to 2005, he was the Dean of the Pardee RAND Graduate School, America’s leading Ph.D. program in policy research, where he was also the Ford Distinguished Professor of International Development and Security. He was the Lester Crown Visiting Professor of Economics at Yale’s School of Management and an Associate Professor of Public Policy at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, where he also served half-time as Special Assistant to Harvard President Derek Bok.

His ten books include Tropical Gangsters, one of The New York Times’ Books of the Century, and Choosing Elites, named in The Harvard Guide to Influential Books.

Heather Marquette

Professor in Development Politics
University of Birmingham


Prof. Heather Marquette is Principal Investigator on the ‘Islands of Integrity’ project, which was funded by the British Academy/Global Challenges Research Fund Sustainable Development Programme. She is Professor in Development Politics at the University of Birmingham’s International Development Department, and Senior Research Fellow (Governance & Conflict) at DFID. She has extensive international experience in research, policy advice, consultancy and training on the politics of development, governance, corruption, political analysi, and aid policy. Her research includes work on Afghanistan, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. Her work has been published in Governance, Third World Quarterly, Political Studies, and Public Administration & Development, among others, and she is the author of Corruption, Politics and Development: The Role of the World Bank (Palgrave Macmillan).

Daniel Bühr



Dr Daniel Lucien Bühr is partner at LALIVE Attorneys at Law, Geneva/Zurich/London. He advises and represents clients in domestic and international internal and regulatory and criminal investigations and regularly reviews corporate risk and compliance management systems. Daniel is a frequent speaker on best practice risk and compliance management and co-founded “Ethics and Compliance Switzerland” (ECS), an independent not for profitassociation which promotes ethical leadership and integrity in all organisations.

Esteban Arribas Reyes

Associate Professor of European Public Policy
University of Alcalá, Spain


Esteban is Associate Professor of European Public Policy at the University of Alcalá from 2006; has been Visiting Fellow in several leading world-wide research centres such as the University of Oxford (Lady Margaret Hall College, and the Media Law and Policy Programme) or Exeter (Centre for European Governance); and is participating in the European project Protego (Procedural Tools for effective Governance – European Research Council (ERC) – gathering data on corruption regulatory policies across the EU and its 28 Member States from 2000-2015.

Esteban Arribas Reyes is a Ph.D. in Politics, MA in European Integration Studies, and an independent consultant on anti-corruption policies of EU countries, especially Spain. Esteban approaches corruption from a holistic and multidisciplinary approach, being dynamic and innovative in the search of new ways of tackling the problem.

He is experienced in working in international policy contexts and has a strong track record of supporting the development of innovative solutions to complex policy challenges. He has worked on a number of projects for public institutions, including the European Commission, the OECD, regional and local as well as central governments in Spain. Currently, he is managing for Transparency International Spain the implementation of Integrity Pacts in Spain as an anti-corruption innovative policy solution in the area of Public Procurement. He understands IPs as a policy solution from a collective action approach where citizens, public administration and business interests converge.

Claire Martin

Project Leader - Public Accountability,
Transparency International


Claire joined Transparency International in 2011. As of January 2015, Claire has taken on the lead on TI’s Public Procurement work. In this role she is leading an EU-wide project piloting Integrity Pacts in 17 locations. She is currently leading a mid-term review of this effort which will seek to extract key lessons on Integrity Pact implementation. Prior to this Claire led on TI’s climate governance research and capacity building work with a focus on identifying governance weaknesses in major global climate funds. Before joining TI, Claire spent two years working with UNDP Timor-Leste on their Climate Change portfolio. Claire received her LLB in Law and German from Trinity College Dublin and MSc in Development Studies from University College Dublin.

Breakout Session 1: Collective Action in e-government, blockchain and digital solutions

Discussion leader:

Candice Welsch

Chief, Implementation Support


Candice Welsch is the Chief of the Implementation Support Section of the Corruption and Economic Crime Branch of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). She leads a team of experts based in both Vienna and the field that is responsible for providing technical assistance to countries in preventing and combating corruption under the United Nations Convention against Corruption.

Ms. Welsch previously held positions in the Justice Section and the Organized Crime and Illicit Trafficking Branch of UNODC, during which time her work focused primarily on issues relating to criminal justice, piracy off the coast of Somalia, human trafficking and international cooperation in criminal matters. Prior to joining UNODC, Ms. Welsch worked as the senior legal officer to the judges of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, a UN-backed international war crimes tribunal. At the national level, Ms. Welsch was a federal prosecutor at the Department of Justice Canada where she prosecuted cases relating to drugs and organized crime and was responsible for extradition and mutual legal assistance with countries around the world.

Ms. Welsch has an LL.M. in international criminal justice (University of London), a master’s degree in international law (Université de Paul Cézanne), law degrees in both common law and civil law (McGill University) and a bachelor of arts in politics (Queen’s University).


Anastasia Mazurok

Head of Monitoring and Evaluation
Transparency International Ukraine


Anastasiya Mazurok as Head of Monitoring and Evaluation Department at Transparency International Ukraine is responsible for development and verification of monitoring and project evaluation tools and ensuring maximum effectiveness of projects’ implementation of the organization.

The mission of Transparency International Ukraine is to reduce the level of corruption in Ukraine by encouraging transparency, accountability and integrity of the government and the civil society, by focusing on monitoring anti-corruption reform implementation and inauguration of new anti-corruption bodies. As one of the project TIU assisted in development, administration and promotion of ProZorro e-procurement system and developed monitoring e-procurement system. The systems allow tendering information and monitoring through civil society and media.

Anastasiya is focusing on provision of impact-oriented approach to the project. She has a substantial experience in research and analysis of social and political studies held by the Kiev International Institute of Sociology. She worked in the charity sector as a researcher where she coordinated monitoring and evaluation of programs and projects.

Anastasiya received her Master’s degree in sociology at the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.

Beauty Narteh

Executive Secretary
Ghana Anti-Corruption Coalition (GACC)


Beauty Emefa Narteh is the Executive Secretary of GACC. Prior to this, she served as the Acting Executive Secretary and Communications Officer of GACC. She works with state and non-state actors to promote issues of anti-corruption and good governance through capacity-building, research and advocacy interventions. She has over thirteen (13) years’ experience in programme management, communications, advocacy, and development work, coupled with practical field experiences from diverse development issues, in the areas of anti-corruption, good governance, the socially disadvantaged, sustainable forest management and gender. Beauty holds a master’s degree in International Affairs with a concentration in Communications and Development, and a graduate Certificate in women’s Studies from Ohio University, USA. She also holds a Certificate in Executive Communications and Governance Reform from the World Bank and Annenberg School, USA. Beauty is a Ford Fellow and an Accredited Member of the Institute of Public Relations Ghana.

Breakout Session 2: Behavioural Ethics and Collective Action: New ideas to incentivize stakeholders?

Discussion leader:

Isabel Cane

Project Lead
World Economic Forum Partnering Against Corruption Initiative



Mary Katherine Brink

Vice President, Chief Compliance Officer, 
Philip Morris International


Mary Katherine Brink holds a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration from the University of Arkansas and a JD from University of Texas School of Law. She is a dual-qualified lawyer in the U.S. and England & Wales.  She currently serves as Philip Morris International’s Chief Ethics & Compliance Officer.  Before taking this role in January of this year, Mary Katherine was PMI’s VP & Associate General Counsel, EEMA, serving as the head lawyer for PMI’s largest region, and prior to that VP & Association General Counsel, Litigation, serving as the Head of PMI’s Global Litigation Team.  Prior to joining PMI, Mary Katherine was a partner with Shook, Hardy & Bacon in their London office.

Vera Cherepanova

Studio Etica

Vera has more than 10 years’ experience as a compliance officer. She’s the founder of Studio Etica, a boutique consultancy that provides advice on corporate ethics and compliance programs to companies around the world. The entity is based in Milan, Italy. Before moving to a consultancy role, Vera worked at Hilti, Renova and Ernst & Young.
Vera is the author Author of the first and only book on compliance in the Russian language, «Compliance program of an organisation», a hands-on guide for compliance professionals on how to build a first-class compliance program.
Vera is an experienced speaker in the compliance profession and a regular contributor to prominent ethics & compliance blogs, including FCPA Blog, Corporate Compliance Insights, and SCCE Compliance & Ethics Blog. An accomplished compliance professional, in 2011 and 2016 awarded for "Best Compliance officer" at the International Compliance Association in Compliance Awards. Vera is conversant in Russian, English, French, and Italian

Breakout Session 3: Certification in Collective Action: Pros and Cons

Discussion leader:

Virna J. Di Palma

Senior Director
TRACE International


Virna Di Palma is an accomplished marketing, business development and communications professional who has worked in the field of anti-bribery compliance for over a decade. As Senior Director of Global Strategy and Communications, Virna oversees all business development and marketing efforts for TRACE, including program management, member acquisition and retention, public relations, event production, brand awareness, partnership development and multi-stakeholder engagement.

Prior to joining TRACE, Virna was a senior program director for the American Conference Institute where she specialized in international trade and anti-bribery compliance and launched the first-ever anti-corruption conferences in Russia, India, Brazil and the Middle East. She started her career as a global security researcher for the London-based think tank Demos.

Virna holds a bachelor’s degree in Political Science from Northeastern University and a master’s degree in International Peace and Security from King’s College in London. She serves on the Steering Committee of the Basel Institute’s International Center for Collective Action (ICCA)


Armin Toifl

Austrian Standards Expert on ISO 37001, ISO 19000


Armin Toifl is an Austrian Standards Expert on ISO 37001, ISO 19000 with over 30 years of Compliance experience working for international industrial conglomerates.

Tetiana Kheruvimova

Investigator at Business Ombudsman Council, Ukraine


Tetiana Kheruvimova is an investigator at Business Ombudsman Council since July 2016. Tetiana contributed to set up and development of Ukrainian Network of Integrity and Compliance - a platform of trustworthy business initiated under support of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Business Ombudsman Council.

Before joining the Business Ombudsman Council, Tetiana was for five years the Senior Associate at KPMG Law Ukraine and headed Corporate Compliance Practice. In 2015, Tetiana was working at KPMG Munich office.

Tetiana graduated from the law department of Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman. In 2017, Tetiana won the Professional Fellows Program Scholarship by the U.S. Department of State and went to the USA for 6-week secondment. Tetiana is also a co-editor of Compliance Periscope Blog, the first Ukrainian specialized resource devoted to corporate compliance and ethics.

Dennis Wolf

Chief Compliance Officer

Dennis Wolf is inheriting the role as Senior Manager Group Compliance, Internal Audit & Risk Management for the Koenig & Bauer Group since 2016. Before joining the Koenig & Bauer Group he was working for Telefónica Deutschland (formerly O2 Germany) being responsible for the initial implementation of a Compliance Management System back in 2002, as legal counsel for telecommunications and anti-trust law (2002-05), for technical concepts and procedure in the field of surveillance of telecommunication (2005-09) and for Internal Audit and Risk Management (2009-16). Since 2016 he is member of the BnEI Working Group considering methods to reduce risks of corruption and to establish a level playing field for those Companies applying a zero tolerance strategy towards Compliance failures.

Panel 4: Converging Risk Management: Human Rights and Corruption in the SDGs and Collective Action


Mirna Adjami

Project Manager Anti-Corruption Action
Basel Institute on Governance


Mirna Adjami joined the Basel Institute on Governance in February 2017 as a Project Manager for Anti-Corruption Collective Action, bringing over 15 years’ experience as an international human rights lawyer with a broad range of thematic expertise.

Previously, Mirna served as a Senior Advisor to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Head of Office for the International Center for Transitional Justice in Kinshasa, DR Congo, a Legal Officer with the Open Society Justice Initiative, and a Staff Attorney with the National Immigrant Justice Center. Mirna received a J.D. from Harvard Law School, a B.A. from Brown University, and a Diploma of Advanced Studies in Corporate Social Responsibility from the University of Geneva School of Economics and Management. She is a Member of the New York Bar.


Enrique Rueda

Chief Compliance Officerand Head of Group Security
Nestlé S.A.


A Colombian lawyer, started his career as labor consultant for local and multinational companies in Colombia. In 2004 Enrique joined Nestlé Colombia as Human Resources Head for Colombia, followed by an appointment to lead the function for the entire Bolivarian Region comprising of Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador (2007-2009).

In July 2009 he assumed the position of Head of Corporate Business Principles, Social Compliance and Employee Relations at the Corporate Headquarters of Nestlé in Vevey. In that role his focus was on strengthening Nestlé’s social practices by promoting responsible working conditions and improving labor dialogue.

Since November 2013 Enrique is leading the Corporate Compliance function dedicated to sustain a culture that enables good business decisions by defining and implementing the overall business integrity and compliance framework of Nestlé.

Shabnam Siddiqui

Centre of Excellence for Governance, Ethics and Transparency (CEGET)


Shabnam Siddiqui is an academic practitioner with twenty years of experience in gender, peace and governance work, of which twelve years have exclusively focused on governance, ethics and transparency initiatives and interventions.

Shabnam specialises in developing and executing strategic intervention through multi-stakeholder networks, is skilled at training and research and has several national and international publications to her credit. Shabnam excels at resource mobilisation, a key to putting any dynamic vision into action.

Work station and academic learning has been primarily garnered in India, with short-term and long-term stints in Pakistan, Italy, France, United States and Singapore.

Elaine Ryan

Senior Analyst on Anti-Corruption and Human Rights

Raoul Wallenberg Institute


Elaine holds a Masters in Political Studies from Sciences Po Paris and a Masters in Human Rights and Democratisation from the European University Centre for Human Rights. She has worked as a human rights officer for EU delegations at the United Nations in Geneva, for the UN mission in Liberia and with the UN special rapporteurs on extreme poverty and on the right to food. 

Elaine’s research focuses on anti-corruption, economic and social rights and the Human Rights Based Approach. 


Day 2: 15th November

Panel 1: Compliance and Collective Action in Emerging Markets


Michael Silverman

Special Counsel
Hughes Hubbard & Reed LLP


Michael Silverman has practiced extensively in the anti-corruption and good governance area for more than 30 years. Michael undertakes anti-corruption investigations and due diligence reviews around the globe and advises multinational companies on their integrity and ethics policies and programs, including in connection with matters before U.S. regulatory authorities, the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and African Development Bank. He currently represents several of the largest Chinese state-owned global infrastructure contractors in connection with their establishment and implementation of compliance programs that meet international standards, as well as other international companies including a major European multinational in a sanctions settlement.

Prior to joining Hughes Hubbard, Michael was the first Integrity Compliance Officer (ICO) for the World Bank Group (WBG) and has held several positions at the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the World Bank’s Guarantees unit, and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). He also has significant project finance and investment experience and has been a partner at other major international law firms.


Guan Fu

General Manager
Legal & Compliance, China Communications Construction Company International (CCCC)

Guan Fu has over 20 years experiences in international business development and project management in multiple continents across Asia, Europe, Africa, America, and Australia. In recent years he focuses on corporate compliance and has substantial experiences in implementation of integrity compliance program for international company, covered more than 80 countries with 300 compliance staff and still expanding globally.

Shikhar Jain

Principal Counsellor
CII-ITC Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Development, India


Mr. Jain’s has 25 years of experience as business sustainability expert. His responsibilities include policy dialogue & consultation with government & various stakeholder groups on sustainability & business ethics issues of strategic importance to corporates. Expertise includes training, advisory and consulting on aligning integrity pledge & code of conduct within business models through governance mechanism & strategy planning, implementation of sustainability framework across the value chains for global brands. Mr. Jain represents the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in various committees and working groups of the Bureau of Indian Standards, AccountAbility, UK, and Global Reporting Initiative and has been involved with development of international standards ISO 26000; Guidance on Social Responsibility, ISO 37001, GRI Standards, 2018 AA 1000 SES on Stakeholder Engagement. Presently he is project Manager for “Responsible Business Practices across Value Chains” funded under Siemens Integrity Initiative.

Soji Apampa

Convention on Business Integrity


Mr.Soji Apampa is the co-founder of The Integrity Organisation Ltd. Gte (1995). He has been actively involved with the designing, resourcing and supervising of programme implementation that has helped to make the strategy of “empowering people, their transactions, systems and institutions against corruption” relevant to Nigeria. He was one of the initiators of the Convention on Business Integrity (CBI), a project launched in Lagos in 1997 to promote ethical business practices, transparency, and fair competition in both the private and the public sectors. His work experience covers training, research, consulting and management in the private and public sectors and civil society.

In 2008 he was appointed to the International Working Group of the UN Global Compact on the 10th Principle (anti-corruption). He was on the editorial board of the 2009 TI Global Corruption Report and was member of the Organizing Committee of the 12thInternational Anti-Corruption Conference which took place in Guatemala City, Guatemala. He is the convener of the annual Christopher Kolade lecture series on Business Integrity, now in its 6thyear.

For over 20 years he has designed and implemented anti-corruption initiatives in Africa.

Liu Yuyang

Beijing New-Century Academy on Transnational Corporations, China


Steve Zimmermann

Senior Adviser for the Governance Global Practice Group, World Bank


Stephen Zimmermann is the Senior Adviser to the Governance Global Practice Group where he helps guide the Bank’s anti-corruption, justice and rule of law work. He was previously the Director of Operations for the World Bank Integrity Vice Presidency (INT). Mr. Zimmermann directs a multi-disciplinary team of lawyers, investigators, forensic accountants, analysts and anti-corruption experts charged with detecting, investigating, sanctioning and preventing fraud and corruption in Bank-financed activities around the world. Since assuming his position, he has had a leading role in developing and implementing an expanded strategy for the World Bank’s integrity agenda, including the introduction of negotiated resolutions of investigations, reforms to the World Bank’s sanctions process, expansion of joint investigations with national authorities, introduction of restitution and enhancements to the Voluntary Disclosure Program. In addition, he led efforts to reach a historic Cross-Debarment Agreement signed by the World Bank and four leading regional Multilateral Development Banks for mutual enforcement of sanctions decisions.

Prior to joining the World Bank Group, Mr. Zimmermann was the first former Chief of the Office of Institutional Integrity for the Inter-American Development Bank where he led the creation of the –then- new unit and its positioning in the Latin America region and the global anticorruption community. He also has served as the interim Chief of Staff for the Independent Inquiry Committee into the United Nations Oil for Food Program. Mr. Zimmermann has previously worked as the Senior Policy Officer and Senior Counsel for the World Bank’s Department of Institutional Integrity, the predecessor to the Integrity Vice Presidency.

From 1991 until 1999, Mr. Zimmermann was an Assistant United States Attorney in the District of Maryland. During his tenure as a federal prosecutor, he successfully prosecuted numerous complex cases involving corruption, financial fraud, tax evasion, health care fraud, securities fraud, and money laundering. He has worked closely with major federal law enforcement agencies, as well as prosecuting offices overseas.

Prior to joining the United States Attorney’s Office, Mr. Zimmermann worked as an attorney with Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering. His practice involved matters involving securities fraud, white-collar criminal matters and a variety of commercial civil litigation.

Panel 2: High Level Reporting Mechanisms: Reflections on progress


Nicola Bonucci

Director for Legal Affairs
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)


Nicola Bonucci is the Director for Legal Affairs and the coordinator for accession. He joined the OECD in 1993 as a Legal Counsellor, served as Deputy Director from 2000 until becoming Director in 2005. He focuses on general public international law issues, participating in the negotiation of international agreements, interpreting the basic texts of the Organisation, and providing legal opinions to the senior management (The Secretary-General and his Deputies), the Council (the governing body of the OECD), and its subsidiary bodies.

He plays an active role in the drafting and the negotiation of the OECD legal instruments. He also deals with personnel matters, including litigation in front of the Administrative Tribunal of the OECD, budgetary issues and contracts. Since 1997 Mr Bonucci has been closely involved in the monitoring and follow-up of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention and is a regular speaker in international conferences on this subject. Prior to joining the OECD, Mr Bonucci served as a Legal Officer with the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) in Rome where he provided developing countries, especially those in Africa, with legal assistance on natural resources law.

Mr Bonucci holds a DEA in Public International Law from the University of Paris X Nanterre, a DESS in International Administration from the University of Paris II-Assas, and a Master of International and Comparative Law from the University of Notre Dame


Algirdas Šemeta

Investigator at Business Ombudsman Council, Ukraine


Since December 2014, Algirdas Šemeta has been Business Ombudsman in Ukraine. Before that, he was a member of the European Commission: from February 2010 until November 2014 he was responsible for taxation, customs, antifraud, statistics (from October 2011), budgetary discharge and audit, and from July 2009 to February 2010 for Financial Programming and Budget.

Mr Šemeta has long experience in the public sector. His previous governmental position was as Lithuania's Finance Minister from December 2008 to June 2009, a post in which he had already served a decade earlier, from 1997 to 1999. From September 2001 to December 2008 he was Director General of the Department of Statistics under the Government of Lithuania and from December 1999 to September 2001 a Government Secretary of the Office of the Government of Lithuania.

In 1999 he worked a short while in the private sector as Vice-president of the public limited company “Nalšia”. Before becoming Chairman of the Securities Commission of Lithuania from December 1992 to February 1997, he was Adviser and Deputy Head of the Privatisation Unit of the Office of the Government of Lithuania in 1991-1992. In 1990-1991 Mr Šemeta was Head of the Subdivision of the Economy Development Strategy Division of the Ministry of Economics of Lithuania and in 1985-1990 he was an Economist holding a fellowship at the Lithuanian Economy Institute.

Mr Šemeta is Lithuanian. He graduated from the Faculty of Economic Cybernetics and Finance of the Vilnius University with a degree as economist-mathematician.


Erica Pedruzzi

Centre for Anticorruption Studies, University San Andrés, Argentina


Erica Pedruzzi is the Director of the Center for Anticorruption Studies of the University of San Andrés in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Prior to joining the Center for Anticorruption Studies, she headed the Compliance area of a regional consulting firm focused on rendering advise on ethical corporate conduct and regulatory compliance issues. Erica has also worked as in-house counsel for the Techint Group of Companies for thirteen years, where she has developed an extensive international practice.  She has also practiced as an attorney-at-law and consultant in the Buenos Aires based international law firms Marval, O'Farrell & Mairal and Mitrani, Caballero Ojam & Ruiz Moreno and in the New York office of Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher. Erica studied Law at the University of Belgrano in Argentina, and holds a Master of Laws (LL.M.) degree from New York University School of Law.

Panel 3: Collective Action: Are there success factors? Lessons from Integrity Partner Workshops


Gemma Aiolfi

Head of Compliance and Corporate Covernance/Collective Action
Basel Institute on Governance


Maria Gabriela Eiras de Almeida

Rights and Anticorruption Adviser
UN Global Compact Network Brazil


Gabriela Almeida has been working at Global Compact Network Brazil for more than five years and is responsible for the coordination of Anti-corruption and Human Rights Working Groups, being in charge for companies engagement, follow up to action plans, organization of meetings, events, workshops, trainings, webinars and publications of the working groups in order to facilitate knowledge building and knowledge sharing. Gabriela was the manager of the Anti-corruption Collective Action Project in Brazil, responsible for projects’ budget, stakeholder’s engagement, organization of workshops and follow up to the project work plan. Gabriela has a degree in International Relations (Facamp), a postgraduate degree in Business Strategy (PUC-SP) and Extension Course of Human Rights (FESPSP).

Suran Lee

Manager, United Nations Global Compact Network Korea


Suran Lee, the Communication and Public Affaris Manager, is in charge of promoting projects and activities of UN Global Compact Network Korea based on ten universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption mainly through media in Korea. Partaking in Fair Player Club project, she was responsible for spreading the value of collective action of public and private across the Korean media. In addition, She organised sessions on anti-corruption in global conferences such as the Asian Leadership Conference. She has completed her Master’s degree in Media and Communication in Graduate School of Goldsmith College, University of London in U.K. after graduating Hanyang University specialiseing in Mass Media as well as Business Management.

Deon Roussow

The Ethics Institute South Africa


Deon Rossouw studied at Stellenbosch University where he also was chairman of the student representative council. His academic career started at Rand Afrikaans University in Johannesburg where he became Professor and Head of the Philosophy Department and served on the Executive Committee of the University. In 2004, he moved to the University of Pretoria where he was Head of the Philosophy Department and Director of the Centre for Business and Professional Ethics. During 2008 to 2009, he spent a year as Program Executive for Business Ethics at the Foundation in Geneva, Switzerland. Currently he is the CEO of The Ethics Institute based in South Africa and Extraordinary Professor in Philosophy at the University of Stellenbosch.

Deon Rossouw is an internationally recognized expert in Business Ethics and the Ethics of Corporate Governance. He wrote several books on business ethics and published in leading international journals. He was the Founding President of the Business Ethics Network of Africa (BEN-Africa) and served as President of the International Society of Business, Economics and Ethics (ISBEE).

He served as a member of the Research Team for the Second King Report on Corporate Governance, and was a member of the Sustainability Committee of the Third King Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa. He currently serves on the main committee of the Fourth King Report on Corporate Governance in South Africa. He has been recognized as a Chartered Director by the Institute of Directors of South Africa.

Deon has extensive training and consulting experience in the private, public and professional sectors in South Africa, but also in other African countries and in Europe. He serves in both executive and non-executive capacity as director on a number of boards.

Qusay Salama

Project Director
Integrity Network Initiative


Qusay Salama is the Project Director of the Integrity Network Initiative, which was launched by the Egyptian Junior Business Association in cooperation with the United Nations Global Compact. The initiative is a collective action effort to advance business integrity standards in Egypt. And it aims for a more effective role for the private sector in the fight against corruption.

He has worked on fighting corruption since 2010 and has represented the private sector in many conferences and in public-private dialogues on fighting corruption. He is the Founder of Kayan Technologies and has co-founded the Project Management Institute Egypt’s Chapter in 2015. Qusay Salama holds a BSc in Computer Science with a minor in business administration from the American University in Cairo (AUC). He has also received his MSc in Computing from the AUC. He is a certified Project Management Professional.

Susanne Friedrich

Alliance for Integrity


Susanne Friedrich is the Director of the “Alliance for Integrity”, a global business-driven, multi-stakeholder initiative seeking to promote transparency and integrity in the economic system.Susanne is an organisational developer with large experience in capacity building and multi-stakeholder management. Before joining the Alliance for Integrity in June 2018, she used to work in various projects of the German development cooperation in Latin America and Germany, in fields such as inclusive business and sustainable value chains, export promotion for SMEs and capacity building for decentralization in the Andean region. 

Panel 4: Official Launch of the Tainted Assets Initiative


Karina Litvack

Non-Executive Board Director


Karina serves on a number of boards and advisory bodies in the UK, Italy and the US, following a 25-year career in finance and investment management, where she developed a particular expertise in corporate governance, business ethics and sustainability. She serves as an Independent Non-Executive Director on the Board of Italian oil & gas company Eni SpA, currently on the Control & Risks Committee and the Sustainability & Scenarios Committee, having previously also been a member of the Compensation Committee. She also serves on the Board Directors of Business for Social Responsibility (BSR); the Senior Advisory Panel of oil & mining sector consultant Critical Resource; the Global Advisory Council of boutique investment bank Cornerstone Capital Inc.; the Advisory Council of private equity firm Bridges Fund Management Ltd.; the Sustainable Development Advisory Panel of software group SAP; and the Transparency International-UK Advisory Council.

Until 2013, Karina ran the Governance and Sustainable Investment activities of UK asset manager F&C Investments, focusing on equity research, shareholder activism and public policy engagement.

A dual Canadian and French national, Karina holds an MBA in Finance and International Business from Columbia University Graduate School of Business in New York and a BA in Political Economy from the University of Toronto.


Jason Hungerford

Mayer Brown


Jason Hungerford is a US and UK-qualified investigations and regulatory partner based in Mayer Brown's London office.
Previously based in Washington DC, Jason advises corporates and financial institutions on economic sanctions and export controls, anti-corruption and anti-money laundering in the context of investigations, complex transactions and compliance programme development and testing. Jason advises corporates across a range of sectors, in particular aerospace and defence, oil and gas, mining, shipping, transportation, engineering and heavy machinery, and FMCG. He also works closely with a range of financial institutions, insurers and brokers. Jason's investigations and compliance work has included mandates in China, Southeast Asia, Russia, Brazil, the United States, the Middle East, the Nordic region and throughout Europe.

Nathaniel Edmonds

Paul Hastings


Nathaniel Edmonds serves as the Chair of the firm’s litigation practice in Washington, D.C., which houses over 80 lawyers handling a variety of litigation matters, including intellectual property and patent litigation, international arbitration, sanctions and export controls, antitrust, white collar crime, anti-corruption compliance, and internal corporate investigations.

Mr. Edmonds focuses on global internal investigations, specializing in anti-corruption matters and the challenges arising from multi-jurisdictional investigations into complex economic crime. As a former Assistant Chief of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) Unit of the Fraud Section in the Criminal Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ), Mr. Edmonds assisted in the supervision of all FCPA cases in the United States and was one of the principal drafters of A Resource Guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, published in November 2012 by the DOJ and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Mr. Edmonds also specializes in anti-corruption compliance risk assessments and due diligence, as well as developing and overseeing compliance programs.

Christopher Wright

Chief Compliance Officer


Christopher is an accomplished senior executive with extensive general management, sales, governance & government affairs experience, a global profile plus deep roots in the Asia Pacific. He recently joined LafargeHolcim following five years at the helm of Governance and Compliance in the Swedish industrial group, Sandvik AB.

Previously, he held business leadership and senior sales roles in Sandvik, BAE Systems and Siemens. He has also served as a senior diplomat and military officer.

Robin Hodess

Director Governance
Transparency, BTeam

Toby Duthie

Founding Partner
Forensic Risk Alliance


Toby Duthie is a founding partner of FRA and head of its UK and European offices. He has more than 20 years’ experience in financial analysis, complex financial modeling, investigations and compliance reviews. Fluent in English and German, Toby has particular expertise in multi-jurisdictional investigations, anti-bribery and corruption compliance testing, and specializes in matters of government enforcement especially in the UK and US. Toby won Investigations Forensic Accountant of the Year 2018 at the Who's Who Legal (“WWL”) Awards and is recognized in WWL: Thought Leaders - Investigations; WWL:Investigations and WWL: Consulting Experts. One lawyer comments in WWL that “he is the most articulate financial expert [they] have ever retained” and another source described him as "tremendously impressive, he knows all there is to know about FCPA enforcement”.

Toby has worked on many complex financial frauds and bribery investigations which have involved disgorgement and fine calculation analysis and modelingin many jurisdictions, including the US, Japan, Austria, and the UK, with the most recent including the Rolls-Royce £671m DOJ, SFO and Brazilian settlement, the $521 million TevaSettlement and the $328 million SBM Offshore DOJ settlement. As one of FRA’s founding partners, Toby was instrumental in developing the firm’s white-collar and regulatory defense services across Europe and has been integral in resolving such high-profile FCPA enforcement cases going back to 2004 including Panalpina, Bonny Island LNG, and Oil-for-Food. He has worked on matters involving UK, Swiss, Dutch, and French regulators and has extensive experience calculating damages in FCPA enforcement actions. Hehas worked on four of the ten largest FCPA settlements. Toby has further worked on some compliance monitorships involving the natural resources and IT sectors.

He also set up the UK’s first third party litigation funding company in 2002 (IM Litigation Management Limited) which pursued over 50 claims with over a 70% success rate. A graduate with honors from University College London, Toby worked as a steel trader in Hong Kong and in the investment banking division of Deutsche Bank/Morgan Grenfell.